Volume 3 Issue 2

Research Article

Work Fractal Dimension for Characterizing Shajara Reservoirs of the Permo-Carboniferous Shajara Formation, Saudi Arabia

Khalid Elyas Mohamed Elameen Alkhidir1*

The quality and assessment of a reservoir can be documented in details by the application of Work. This research aims to calculate fractal dimension from the relationship among Work, maximum Work and wetting phase saturation and to approve it by the fractal dimension derived from the relationship among capillary pressure and wetting phase saturation. PDF

Review Article

Can Lichens form a Barrier for Fungi Marching on?

Wilfried Allaerts*

The spread of new fungal diseases forms one of the major challenges in a changing planet. The rise of the Sudden Oak Death Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum has caused severe economic damage to large forested areas in the Northern hemisphere. In this paper, we present a review on the available data on this relatively new disease in the framework of global biodiversity impairment. PDF

Review Article

Evaluvation of Various Biocontrol Agents (Plant Extracts) on Linear Colony Growth of the Fungus fusarium Oxysporum Causing Onion Wilt

Shahid Hussain1 , Muhammad Ayub1*, Muhammad Rasheed1 and Faizullah Khan2

Onion (Allium cepa L) is found in various regions now a day's used not only for culinary preparations but also for medicinal purposes. Onion with a variety of purposes is often used as a raw material in many dishes and accepts almost all of the traditions and culture. Owing to its storage characteristics and durability of shipping, onions have been traded more widely than most vegetables. PDF

Research Article

Acute Toxicity of Graded Palm Oil Mill Effluents on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus 1758) and African Sharptooth Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings

Ogaga Augustine Aghoghovwia1 , Martins Ugolo1 and Sylvester Chibueze Izah2*

This study evaluated the acute toxicity of graded palm oil mill effluents on Nile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings. The fish were obtained from an earthen fish ponds in the Niger Delta University fish farm. The fish were allowed to adapt in a concrete aquarium for 2 weeks. Range findings tests of the palm oil mill effluents were performed. PDF

Research Article

Prevalence of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Viral Disease in Baltistan Region and its Correlation with Vector Population

Shahid Hussain*1 Muhammad Ayub1 , Muhammad Rasheed1 , Shabir Hassan2

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) being an important vegetable crop is widely grown in tropical, temprate and subtropical regions of the world. Begomoviruses, such as okra yellow vein mosaic virus causing okra yellow vein mosaic viral disease (OYVMVD) and transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in persistent non-propagative circulative is major threat for okra production in Baltistan PDF

Research Article

Behavioral and Growth Responses to Predation Threat in Wild and Sea-Ranched Brown Trout (Salmo Trutta):An Experiment with a Grey Heron Dummy

Erik Petersson1*, Ana Camargo Valencia1 and Torbjörn Järvi1

Sea-ranching of salmonid fishes are common on the northen hemisphere as a way to counteract declining populations due to dam constructions or other anthropogenic factors that negatively affects the fishes. However, many studies have revealed that the wild form is superior under natural condition. Anti-predator responses, social behavior, and growth have so far mostly been investigated PDF